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编写说明

编写此书,并非想把它编成一本语音学,或者是语法学,而是本着实用的原则,方便教师在对学生已有的旧知识进行摸底之后,利用资料,有效地帮助学生进行初高中的衔接,为高中新课程的学习打好基础。

本书主要涉及到英语学习中的语言基础知识部分,有三个方面:语音、词法、语法。语音是语言学习的基础,本书介绍了基本的音标和音节知识,大量的例子帮助学生逐步掌握基本的拼读规则。词法部分帮助大家认识不同的词类及其变化,以及关于构词法的问题。掌握这部分有助于学生扩大词汇量。句法部分介绍了句子的基本成分和五种基本句型.而时态语态和从句,初中只是以认知和简单地运用为主。在高中所涉及到的更加复杂。另外所配的巩固练习有限,教师可根据实际情况增加相关的练习。此书编写由徐金松、夏再莉、王淑芬、范智能老师完成。同时感谢相关领导及同仁的关心与支持。

2012-7-16

  

第一章                 语音

第一节              音标…………………………………..1

第二节              音节………………………………..…6

第二章                 词法

第一节              词类…………………………………..8

第二节              构词………………………..…………13

第三章                 句法

第一节   句子的基本成分…………..…..…… .16

第二节   简单句的五种基本句型……………..18

第四章                 时态与语态

第一节              时态………………………….………20

第二节              语态………………………………….25

第五章                 从句

第一节  名词性从句……………………………29

第二节  状语从句………………………………30

第三节  定语从句………………………………32

第四节  从句识别与运用………………………33


第一章          

第一节          

48个国际音标表

12个单元音

长元音

[i:]

[?:]

[?:]

[u:]

[a:]

 

短元音

[i]

[?]

[?]

[u]

[?]

[e]

[?]

 

8个双元音

[ai]

[ei]

[?i]

[i]

[?]

[?u]

[u]

[au]

 

10

清辅音

[p]

[t]

[k]

[f]

[s]

[θ]

[∫ ]

[t?]

[tr]

[ts]

浊辅音

[b]

[d]

[g]

[v]

[z]

[e]

[? ]

[d?]

[dr]

[dz]

3个鼻音

[m]

[n]

[]

 

3个似拼音

[h]

[r]

[l]

 

2个半元音

[w]

[j]

 

一.字母组合的发音

[i:]字母组合 ee ea ie --three tree green sheep meet beef see seek eat tea meat leave lead teacher team mean speak clean piece

[?]发音字母 a--bag hand and ant happy hat map mad bad black back glad flag shall man

[e]字母组合 ea e a--head bread pleasure elephant electric remember sell shell lesson better bed desk hotel yes many any

[?:]字母组合ir ur ear er or--girl shirt skirt thirty thirteen third bird turn burn murder nurse turtle Thursday burger learn earn earth heard

[?]字母组合 er or ou ar o a e u--teacher leader remember player speaker farmer powder doctor actor mayor author tractor delicious gracious pleasure familiar collar dollar together tomorrow today lesson control around account ago elephant manta banana Canada

[a:] 字母组合 ar a--car farm card arm garden fast class last glass plant aunt calm

[?]发音字母 u o ou oo--up supper lunch fun gun hunt cup bus come mother dose brother love above trouble  rough flourish blood flood

[?:]字母组合 al or au our ar--small wall talk tall hall ball call walk short more lord horse for forty sport door floor store author caught autumn four mourn court bought warm quarrel quarter

[?]发音字母 o a--hot lost lot fox box mop hop loss collar not want wash watch

[u:]字母组合 oo o u--food moon room gloom broom doom goose tooth shoe do two true truth blue full prude

[u]字母组合 oo ou u o--look good foot book wood should could put full bull pull push woman wolf

[ei]发音字母 a ay ea ai ey--name cake late gate plane April play say may way great break rain  paint plain they grey

[ai]发音字母 i y--bike fine find die nine light night high my try fly eye

[au]字母组合 ou ow--house out flour ground account count sound loud around mouse flower down now cow  how town

[?u]发音字母 o ow oa--home cold go no phone host ghost know low below grow blow show flow boat coat goal  comb

[i]字母组合 eer ear--beer deer ear near here fierce idea

[??]字母组合ear air ere--pear bear chair air fair there where care

[au?]字母组合our ower--hour tour flower shower

[t] tree two ten ton town twenty city
[d] door dull desk dose do dog dictionary
[k] king kite key look cook book kitchen sky
[g] girl good goal goat grade long language
[m] man make moon morning move come comb
[n] pen ten nine fine night noon moon clean

[?] uncle bank English think thank junk  sing king morning
[l] long land lend lord fly flag black world cold could goal soul
[r] read red right run room write
[f] five fly fine flag frog fog roof knife life wife cough laugh rough of

[v] very evening even every voice vest

[s] six sit student same seat  miss case scarf
[z] zoo zebra zero zap close nose hose suppose pause those
[e] that this those these though
[∫] sheep shoulder ship shoe she brush wash nation attention
[h] hot hop home house horse how who
[w] when what where window wind wood
[j] yes year yell you your yolk yellow
[] child chicken china chair lunch ouch catch teach
[d
?] age language cabbage vegetable stage bridge joy enjoy join July June junk
[tr] tree country try treat track trunk
[dr] dry dream drop drive drink

[ts] students boots boats goats nuts
[dz] goods woods moods hoods

                                          

二.用音标给26个英语字母标音:

A a     B b      C c       D d    E e     F f       G g        H h

[ei]    [bi:]      [si:]       [di:]    [i:]    [ef]       [d?i:]      [eit?]

I i      J j       K k      L l     M m    Nn       O o        P p   

[ai]     [d?ei]     [kei]     [el]     [em]    [?n]      []       [pi:]

Q q     R r       S s      T t     U u      V v      W w       X x     

[kju:]  [a:(r)]      [es ]     [ti:]    [ju:]     [vi:]     [d?blju:]    [eks] 

Y y      Z z

 [wai]   [zed]/ [zi:]

巩固练习:

一、问答部分:

1、哪9个字母中含有[i:]这个音素?

2、哪7个字母中含有[e] 这个音素?

3、哪4个字母中含有[ei]这个音素?

4、哪5个字母为元音字母?

5、哪个字母独立成词?

6、哪个字母有两种读音?

三.五个元音的发音规则


①元音字母在重读音节中的读音

a在开音节中

[ei] name plane Jane baby cake

在闭音节中

[?] bag dad hat map black back

e在开音节中

[i:] he these me Chinese

在闭音节中

[e] bed let pen desk yes egg

i在开音节中

[ai] bike fly drive time nice kite

在闭音节中

[i] fish big drink sit milk swim

o在开音节中

[?u] those close go hoe home no

在闭音节中

[?] clock not box shop sock

u在开音节中

[ju:] student excuse duty Tuesday

在闭音节中

[?]bus cup jump much lunch

在开音节中,元音字母u在辅音字母j l r s后面时读[u:],例如:June blue ruler super

②元音字母在非重读音节中的读音

元音字母读音

a

[?]China another woman breakfast

[i]orange comrade village cabbage

e

[?] hundred student open weekend

[?:] nerve serve term

i

[i] chicken pocket begin children

[?] holiday beautiful family animal

[ai] exercise satellite

O

[?] second tonight somebody welcome

[?u] also zero photo

U

[?] autumn difficult

[ju:] popular congratulation January

动词中的a如果处在开音节位置,a[ei],例如:operate

u处在开音节位置,又在辅音字母j l r s后面时,[u(:)],例如:July influence February issue

元音字母在重读音节中的特殊读音

a[w]音后面

[?] want what watch wash quality

af n sk ph sp ss st th

[a:] after plant graph ask grasp glass fast father

i-nd -ldgh

[ai] find child light high

o-st -ld

[?u] most postcard old cold

om n v th

[?] come monkey love mother

-r音节元音字组在重读音节中的读音

ar

[a:] car farm dark sharpener

ar[w]音后面

[?:] warm quarter towards

or

or[w]音后面

[?:] forty morning short

[?:] word worker worse

er ir ur

[?:] certainly bird Thursday

辅音字母r双写时,前面的元音字母不能与r构成-r音节,而是按重读闭音节的拼读规则发音.例如: carry sorry hurry

-r音节在非重读音节中通常读[?],例如:dollar teacher forget Saturday

-re音节元音字组在重读音节中的读音

are[??] care dare hare

ere[i?] here mere

ire[ai?] fire hire wire

ore[?:] more score before

ure[ju?] pure cure

are ere ire ore很少出现在非重读音节中,ure在非重读音节中读[?],例如:picture pleasure

重读元音字母加Rr,再加非重读元字组时,重读元音字母应按-re音节拼读规则拼读,字母Rr[r].

例如:parent zero story during inspiring

元音字组在重读音节中的读音

ai/ay[ei] afraid rain wait day play

air[??] air hair chair pair repair

alf m

[?] small ball talk wall all

[?:l] always also salt almost bald

[a:] half calm

au/aw[?:] autumn daughter draw

ea[i:] teach easy cheap please

[e] heavy bread sweater weather

[ei] break great

ear

[i?] hear dear near clear year

[??] bear pear wear

[?:] earth learn early

ee

[i:] jeep week green three

eer[i?] pioneer deer beer

ei/ey[ei] eight neighbour they

[i:] either key

eu/ewj l r s

[ju:] new few newspaper

[u:] flew brew

ie/ei[s]音之后

[i:] piece field receive

oa [?u] coat Joan boat goal

oar/oor[?:] roar board door floor

oi/oy

[?i] noise point boy toilet

oo

[u:] broom food tooth school

[u] book look cook foot good

ou/ow

[au] flower house count down

[?u] know row throw though

[?] young country enough

[u:] group you soup

our[?:] course your four

[au?] our hour ours

[?:] journey

uij l r s

[ju:i] fluid suicide tuition

[u:] juice fruit suit

非重读音节中元音字组和字群的读音

ai/ay ei/ey

[i] Sunday foreign monkey

ow

[?u] yellow sparrow tomorrow

、元字组在复合词非重读音节中的读音

复合词中的第二部分不标注重音符号,但其中的元音字母或元音字组仍按重读音节拼读规则拼读.

everyday[ei]

handbag[?]

blackboard[?:]

有些词随着语言的发展,前后两部分已失去其单独存在的意义,融合成为一个词.其中的非重读部分要按非重读音节的读音规则发音.

例如:

sun太阳 + day[ei]日子 > Sunday[i] 星期天

holy神圣 + day[ei]日子 > holiday[i] 假日

break中断 + fast[a:]斋戒 > breakfast[?] 早餐

cup茶杯 + board木板[?:] > cupboard[?] 碗柜

辅字组的读音

b[b] bike bus bag

[/] bomb tomb

ce前或在i/y

[k] cake picture coat music

[s] face decide cinema

ch[t∫] much chick rich teacher

[k] school headache chemistry

[∫] machine

-ck

[k] cock pocket black knock

d [d] doctor bread hand day

-dge[d?] bridge fridge

dr-[dr] children driver drink

f[f] five four breakfast

ge i/y

[g] bag gardon go

[d?] orange large German

gh[f] cough enough

[/] light daughter high

gu- -gue

gu在非重读音节中

[g] guess league dialogue

[gw] language

h[h] hot head house hand

[/] hour honest

j[d?] jeep jar joke join July

k[k] kind bike skate make week

kn-[n] knife know knock

l [l] life milk school tall

m

[m] monkey come autumn

-mn

[m] autumn column

n

n[k] [g]音前

[n] not shine ten note

[?] uncle thank hungry

-ng

[?] morning young wrong

p

[p] paper plane pig ship pen

ph

[f] elephant photo telephone

q [k] Iraq

qu - [kw] quality quite

r  [r] red rubber rule



 第二节 音节

     一般地说,一个单词中有几个发音的元音字母,就有几个音节。如habitpoliticsno等。但要注意:(1)单词末尾不发音的e不构成音节。如biketake等;(2)两个元音字母在一起,一般为字母组合,发一个元音,构成一个音节。如book rain等;(3)词尾的-le可以和其前边的辅音组成一个音节。如ablepeo-ple等。

开音节 绝对开音节:单个元音字母后面没有辅字组的重读音节.例如:no blue ba-by stu-dent se-cret.   相对开音节:单个元音字母后面加单个辅音字母,再加一个不发音字母e构成的重读音节.例如:name these bike home ex-cuse.
闭音节 单个元音字母后面有辅字组(r w y 除外)且以辅字组结尾的重读音节.例如:bag egg fish not cup

重读音节 单词中读音特别响亮的音节.用音标标记双音节,多音节词的读音时,应使用重读符号.单音节词多数是重读音节,标记读音时不需要使用重读符号.
*
多音节词重读规则 多音节词通常在倒数第三个音节重读.例如: el-e-phant        con-grat-u- la-tion
词尾有-ic-tion,-sion的词,-ic-sion,-tion前的一个音节上重读.

例如:scien tific       im pression     nation

双音节词的重音一般在第一个音节上。如 basiceven windowopenstu-dent等。重读音节中的元音字母的读法和单音节词一样,也是开音节读字母音,闭音节读短元音。怎么知道它是开音节还是闭音节呢?

1)两元音字母之间如有两个辅音字母,则中间分开,一边一个。如mattermemberwin-dowdoctorsup-perlittle等。这样一分,第一个音节是以辅音字母结尾的,它就是重读闭音节,元音字母读短元音。

2)两元音字母中间有一辅音字母,该辅音字母划归后一音节。如basicregionopenhuman等。这样一分,头一个音节是以元音字母结尾的,它是重读开音节,元音字母读其字母音。但是,双音节词中,重读开音节中的元音字母有不少仍读短元音。如secondpresenteverhovermodernproper等。第二音节中有/i/时,第一音节中的aeio大多读短元音。如spanishhabitmes-sagecitysystem profit等。

3)第一音节如是r音节或其他元音字母组合,其读音方法和单音节词基本一样,如armymeritcircleorderpurpleawfulautumn等。但也有读短元音的,如knowledgenourish等。

4)非重读音节中的元音字母aeou,及字母组合arerorure等一般读为[?],如aboutsilentatomsupplyradarsupperdoctor等。iy及字母组合ayey一般读作/i/,如acidthirtySundayvalleyae也可读作人/i/,如comradebefore等。o在词尾时仍读字母音。如heroNegro

有三个或三个以上音节的词称为多音节词,音节的划分方法和单音词相同。多音节词的重音一般落在倒数第三个音节上,倒数第五个音节是次重音。多音节词的读音如下:

1)在多音节词中,重读闭音节中的元音字母读短元音。如densityintensityoppositeadvertise等。

2)在多音节词中,应将中间的辅音字母划归前一音节,形成重读闭音节。如capitalmedicalabilitypropertydemocracy等。但u一般读其字母音。如studenthumanfuneraluniversity等。

3)重读音节前的闭音节中,其元音字母常读短元音。如activementalityimprobableprosperityfrustration等。其他非重读音节中的元音字母一般读/?/或/i/,如Saturdaynurserymicrophonegrammaticalessntial theorytelegram等。u有时读/u/,如instrumentinfluence等。有的元音消失。如everybusinessinterestmedicine等。

第二章 词法

    第一节    词类

一、按照词性分类下列单词

and   give    Germany    herself   but   finish  minute    mine    so   make  we newspaper   exciting  beautiful  often   water   second  even  usually   over   friendly    ninety   during   twelve  twelve

n. _____________________________

v. _____________________________

adj.____________________________

adv.____________________________

pron.___________________________

conj.___________________________

num._________________________

1. 名词

    名词可以分为专有名词和普通名词,专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名称,如BeijingChina等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词,如:booksadness悲哀,悲伤等。普通名词又可分为下面四类:

    1)个体名词:表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun

    2)集体名词:表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family

    3)物质名词:表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air

    4)抽象名词:表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念,如:work

个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词,物质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词。
1.1
名词复数的规则变化

一般情况加 –s清辅音后读/s/          map --_________

          浊辅音和元音后读 /z/   bag-_____________

s, sh, ch, x等结尾 –es /iz/     bus-_____/ watch-______s  
ce, se, ze,等结尾  –s /iz/      license-________

以辅音字母+y结尾 y i再加es  /z/     baby---_______

1.2 其它名词复数的规则变化

1 y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时_________________      例如:two Marys              the Henrys

        monkey---monkeys          holiday---holidays  

  2 o 结尾的名词,变复数时:

     a. ____________如: photo--______        piano---pianos

                  radio---_____         zoo---zoos

     b.___________,如:potato-______         tomato–tomatoes

     c. 上述ab两种方法均可,如zero---zeros / zeroes。 

3 ffe 结尾的名词变复数时:

     a._________,如: belief---________         roof---roofs

                 safe---__________         gulf---gulfs

     b. ________,如:half---___________ 

       knife---knives leaf---leaves        wolf---_________

       wife---wives  life---lives          thief---________

c. 上述ab两种方法均可,如handkerchief手帕: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves

1.3 名词复数的不规则变化

1 child---children       foot---feet       tooth---teeth

mouse---mice      man---men       woman---women 

注意:由一个词加 man woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 –men -women 

an Englishmantwo Englishmen   German 不是合成词,故复数形式为GermansBowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans

1.4 名词所有格

表示有生命的东西的名词及某些表示时间、距离、星球、世界、国家等无生命的东西的名词后加’s来表示所有关系,叫做名词所有格。例如:

men’s   room 男厕所

Chairman Mao’s    works 毛主席著作

a mile’s   distance 一英里的距离

a stone’s   throw 一步之遥

the moon’s   light 月光

但如果该名词是以-s-es接尾,则只在该名词后加来构成所有格。

例如:3 hours’ walk 三小时的路程

 five minutes’ walk 五分钟路程

two miles’ distance 两英里的距离

巩固练习

. 在有复数的名词后打勾

 advice ___ diamond______ meat _______ answer _______ jewellery ________

carrot _____penny _____ story_____ scenery ___   money ______ news _____

shirt ______ fish _____

二.用适当的名词完成句子

1. He acts very well. He is a fine ____________.

2. I can’t play the piano. I’m not a _________.

3. Manuel assists me. He is my _________

4.She always tells lies. He is a ______

5.I decided  this . It was my ______

6.Who discovered this? Who made this ________?

7.She is absent.Can you explain her _______?

8.Try again. Have another ______.

9.Don’t be curious. Conrtol your _______.

10. Don’t argue. I don’t want an _______.

三.将下列句子中的名词改为复数,并对句子作出适当变化

1.I’ve lost my key. _______________________________

2.This knife is blunt ._____________________________

3.The leaf is turning yellow.________________________

4.This cherry is very sweet._________________________

5.We have a Henry in our family._____________________

2.代词 (完成下表)

2.1人称代词和物主代词

   人称代词

第一人称单数

第二人称单数

第三人称单数

第一人称复数

第二人称复数

第三人称复数

主格

I

he/she/it

we

you

they

宾格

you

形容词性物主代词

名词性物主代词

汉语

我的

你的

他的/她的/它的

我们的

你们的

他(她、它)们的

巩固练习 

问题探究   什么情况下用主格,什么情况下用宾格?

______________________________________________________________________________

填上相应的格

1.       What a beautiful baby girl! What’s _______ name?

2.       This is your towel:it’s yellow.And that’s your husband’s. _______ is blue.

3.       This car isn’t _______. My car has a different registraition number.

4.       Shall we have ______ supper on a tray and watch TV?my wife asked.

5.       That umbrella doesn’t belong to you. ________ is the one with the leather handle.

2.2反身代词

1、第一、二人称的反身代词是由形容词性物主代词加上-self-selves构成的。如:   I--myself we--ourselves you(单数)-- yourself you(复数)-- yourselves   

2、第三人称的反身代词是由人称代词的宾格加上-self-selves构成的。如:   

she--herself he --himself it--itself they--themselves one—oneself

3. 反身代词不能做主语,但可作主语同位语,放在主语后或句末

2.3不定代词

常用不定代词有: somesomethingsomebodysomeone),

any__________________________),

no___________________________),

every___________________________),

alleachbothmuchmany,(alittle,(afew

others),anothernoneoneeither neither

other another either neither all both  用法有什么不同?

_____________________________________________________________________

3.形容词(adjective)

简称adj.a.是主要用来修饰名词的词,表示事物的特征。形容词用来修饰名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、状态,和特征的程度好坏,与否。

3.1在句中的位置

  形容词作定语一般放在______________________如果有两个或两个以上的形容词修饰一个名词时,则______________________________________词。 英语单词中something, anything, nothing 等不定代词被形容词修饰时,形容词放在____________________________

3.2.比较级和最高级

  绝大多数形容词有三种形式,___________________________ 以表示形容词说明的性质在程度上的不同,分为规则变化和不规则变化。   

规则变化   

1)形容词的比较级和最高级形式是在词尾加-er -est 构成。

   great (原级) greater(比较级) greatest(最高级)   

2e 结尾的单音节形容词的比较级和最高级是在词尾加-r -st 构成。  

 wide (原级) wider (比较级) widest (最高级)  

3)以-y, -er, -ow, -ble结尾的双音节形容词的比较级和最高级是在词尾加-er -est 构成。   

clever(原级) cleverer(比较级) cleverest(最高级)

4y 结尾,-y 前是辅音字母的形容词的比较级和最高级是把-y 去掉,加上-ier -iest 构成.  

 happy (原形) happier (比较级) happiest (最高级)   

5)以重读闭音节+辅音字母结尾的形容词的比较级和最高级是双写该辅音字母然后再加-er-est   

big (原级) bigger (比较级) biggest (最高级)   

6) 双音节和多音节形容词的比较级和最高级需用more most 加在形容词前面来构成。   beautiful (原级) difficult (原级)   

more beautiful (比较级) more difficult (比较级)

  most beautiful (最高级) most difficult (最高级)

7)词前如加less least 则表示较不最不  

 important 重要less important 较不重要least important 最不重要  

 tired 累的more tired 更累的most tired 最累的

4.副词

是一种用来修饰动词,形容词,全句的词,说明时间,地点,程度,方式等概念的词。

 有地点副词.方式副词.程度副词.疑问副词.连接副词。

1)____________副词:

now,then,often,always,usually,early,today, last,already,generally,frequently, seldom,ever,never,yet,soon,too, immediately, hardly,finally,shortly, before, ago,sometimes, yesterday ,lately,next,.

2) ____________副词:

here, there, everywhere, anywhere, in, out, inside, outside, above, below, down, back, forward, home, upstairs, downstairs, across, along, round , around, near, off, past, up, away, on.

3) ____________副词:

carefully, properly, anxiously, suddenly, normally, fast, well, calmly, politely, proudly, softly, warmly

4)__________副词:

much,little, very,rather,so,too,still, quite, perfectly, enough, extremely, entirely,almost, slightly.

5)_________副词:

how, when, where, why.

6) _________副词:

when, where, why.

7) _________副词:

therefore,moreover,however,otherwise,then. when.where.why(宾语从句中

副词和形容词一样,也有它的比较级和最高级形式. 可以参考形容词的变换形式。但以词尾 -ly 结尾的副词(除 early )须用 more most

巩固练习 

用所给词的适当形式填空

It’s (legal)_______ to dive under the age of seventeen in Britain., but a boy of seventeen years old managed to pass his driving test on the day of his seventeen birthday.Most people would consider this (possible)________ because you need a lot of lessons to pass the test. David Livesey arranged to have a (lesson of eight hours)_____________________beginning at dawn on his birthday.At first ha was very (care)_________ and (hesitate)_________, but he had a (wonder)_____ teacher and his driving improved (amazing)______ during the day. By four in the afternoon,still feeling (energy)________ ,he was ready to take his test and he passed first time! He was almost in a state of shock after the test, and he drove home very (slow)______ in the (red) ____ light of the (set)_____ sun.David’s driving attracted the attention of two policemen,but they broke into smiles and congratulated him (warm)________ when he showed them his certificate and told them his story.

5.动词

1)表示动作状态的词叫做动词。

2 根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为四类,分别是:实义动词(Notional Verb)、系动词( Link Verb)、助动词(Auxiliary Verb)、情态动词(Modal Verb

3 动词根据其后是否带有宾语,可分为两类,分别是:及物动词(Transitive Verb)、不及物动词(Intransitive Verb),缩写形式分别为vt. vi.

4)分清及物不及物:

分清动词的及物不及物是在英语学习中必须解决的首要问题。动词及物与不及物通常有以下几种情况:

a.主要用作及物动词。及物动词后面必须跟宾语。可以用于:"主+谓+宾""主+谓+双宾""主+谓+宾+宾补"结构。如:He wrote me a letter last year.

b. 主要用作不及物的动词。不及物动词后面不跟宾语。只能用与:"主+谓"结构。

This is the room where I once lived.

类似的还有:agree, go, work, listen, look, come, die, belong, fall, exist, rise, arrive, sit, sail, hurry, fail, succeed....

c.既可以用作及物又可以用作不及物的动词,其意义不变。如begin 都是作"开始"讲。everybody , our game begins. let us begin our game. 类似的还有:start, answer, sing, close, consider, insist, read, learn, prepare, pay, hurt, improve....

d.既可以用作及物又可以用作不及物的动词,其意义完全不同。

这类动词作不及物动词是一个意义;而作及物动词时却是另一个意义。如lift作不及物动词时是指烟雾的"消散"we saw the mountain when the clouds lifted. 作及物动词时是"升高;举起" He lifted his glass and drank.

5)动词有五种形态,分别是:原形(Original Form)、第三人称单数形式(Singular From in Third Personal)、过去式(Past Form)、过去分词(Past Participle)、现在分词(Present Participle)。

巩固练习

给下列动词分类

could  was  have   need   make  is   do   should   wish   compare  go   will

1.实义动词____________________________________________________

2.系动词______________________________________________________

3.助动词______________________________________________________

4.情态动词____________________________________________________

6. 非谓语动词

 我们把英语句子中不充当谓语但又具备动词特征的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词的基本形式有三种--- to do ./ doing / done,它们可以充当除了谓语以外的所有成分。例如:

To master a language is not an easy thing.(主语)

My wish is to learn English well.(表语)

We expect you to be with us (宾补)

Do you mind my opening the window?(宾语)

She is studying in the reading room.(定语)

I remembered meeting him in the reading room.(宾语)

She had her money stolen.(补语)

The glass is broken.(表语)

巩固练习

用所给词的适当形式完成句子。

1.It’s too cold . Let’s turn on the heater _______ (warm) ourselves up.

2.The old man enjoy ____ (listen) to the singing of the birds in the park.

3.She often makes us ____ (do ) a lot of homework after school.

4.The boy could’t help _____ (cry) when he heard the news.

5.It is one of the funnest thing _____(find) on the Internet so far this year.

6.According to a recent U.S. survey, children spend up to 25 hours a week _____ (watch) TV.

7.Li Fei is asking his uncle, an English teacher,________ (help) him think of a foreign name.

8.Why did you keep your brother ___________(wait) for a long time that evening?

第二   构词法

(一)派生:在词根上加后缀或前缀构成新词。

1.常见的后缀:

——名词后缀:

(1)-er,-or表示动作者,人,如:leader, teacher, singer, actor, monitor等。

(2)-ese表示语言,人,如:Chinese, Japanese等。

(3)-ian表示,如musician, politician, Russian等。

(4)-ist表示, 主义者,如:scientist, communist, socialist等。

(5)-ment表示运动,结果,如:development, movement, government等。

(6)-ness表示状态,性质,如: darkness, weakness, happiness, illness等。

(7)-sion表示动作,状态,如: possession, permission等。

(8)-tion表示动作,状态,如: action, pronunciation, instruction, liberation等。

(9)-al 表示动作,过程,如:arrival, signal等。

(11)-ence表示动作,过程,性质,状态,程度,如: absence, difference, patience,

(12)-ity构成抽象名词,表示状态、性质、结果,如:ability, beauty, electricity, majority, nationality, reality, safety等。

(13)-y表示性质,境遇,如:bravery, difficulty, discovery, slavery等。

——形容词后缀:

(1)-al表示,如: national, chemical, political等。

(2)-an表示(地,人)的,如:African, Asian, American, Italian等。

(3)-ble表示能够,如:reasonable, valuable, unforgettable, enjoyable等。

(4)-ern表示方向,如:southern, northern, eastern, western等。

(5)-ful表示充满,如:beautiful, careful, harmful, successful, mouthful, spoonful

(6)-ish表示属于,稍微,……语的,如:British, Spanish, English, foolish, childish

(7)-ive 表示性,倾向,如:active, expensive, native, relative, protective等。

(8)-less表示无(反义词后缀),如:careless, harmless, useless等。

(9)-y表示充满,性质,如: rainy, windy, snowy, cloudy, lucky, dirty等。

(10)-ly表示……的,有……性质的,如:daily, friendly, lively, lonely, lovely

(11)-some表示易于……的,有……倾向的,如:tiresome, troublesome等。

(12)-ous表示“……,如:famous, mountainous, continuous等。

——动词后缀:

(1)-en使……”,如:sharpen, deepen, loosen等。

(2)-ize, 如:modernize, industrialize, organize等。

2.常见的前缀:

(1)dis-否定,如:discover, disappear, discourage, disagree, disadvantage, disappoint等。

(2)en-使……”,如:enable, encourage, enlarge等。

(3)in-(il-, im-, ir-)不,非,如:invisible, illegal (非法的), impossible, irregular等。

(4)mis-,如:mistake, misunderstand等。

(5)re-重复,再,如:return, rewrite, remarry等。

(6)tele-远程,如:telephone, telescope等。

(7)un-,如:unfit, unfair, unknown等。

(二)合成:由两个或更多的词合成一个词。如:

1.合成名词:bookcase, classroom, dining-room, classmate, housework等。

2.合成形容词:seasick, ever-green, good-looking, snow-white, hard-working等。

3.合成动词:overcome, dumbfound, white-wash等。

4.合成副词:however, whenever, maybe, beforehand等。

5.合成代词:himself, everyone, nobody, anything等。

(三)转换:由一种词类转化为另一种或几种词类。如:

1You must wash your hands before each meal. (hands为名词)

2He took off his cap and handed it to me. handed为动词)

3You must try to catch up with others. (try为动词)

4Have a try and you might succeed. (try为名词)

5The sports meet was held two days ago. (meet为名词)

6They often meet here in the afternoon. meet为动词)

7He was lying on his back in the sun. back为名词)

8He came back before supper yesterday. (back为副词)

9They came on through the back door. (back为形容词)

巩固练习

一.找出一个不同类的单词,并说说标准

1. settler         trader          heater         westerner        explorer

2.reconstruction   respect         recover        replace          rebuild

3.development    government     unemployment  movement       moment

4.non-violent     understand      unrest         unpleasant       injustice

5.greedy         hungry         entry          windy          smoky

6.disply         disappear        disagree       dissatisfied      disadvantage

二.按要求写单词

Adj.--------------n.     v.--------------n.         adj.----------adv.

hard __________         suffer __________           social __________

willing _________        begin __________           economic_______

________ greed          destroy _________           _________ rapidly

poor _________          depress __________         slow _________

_______ commerce       reconstruct _________        ________ truly

三.将下列两排单词组合成合成词

black  blue  over  out  set  passer   man  warm 

throw  made   sun   board  by  eyed  made   hearted

__________     __________      __________     ____________

__________     __________      __________     ____________

第二章   句法

第一节      句子成分

在真正的句子前打勾

____ 1. Made in Germany                ______2.Sit down, please.

____ 3.I want to write aletter              ______4.You can’t park here.

_____5.Standing in the rain .              ______6. Every minute counts.

_____7.You should listen.                ______8.A bottle of ink.

_____9.Do you like?                    ______10.Don’t interrupt.

_____11.Have finished my work.          ______12.What happened?

句子的组成部分有______________________________________________七种  

主语是句子叙述的主体,可由_______________________________________承担。   

谓语说明主语所发出的动作或具有的特征和状态。谓语由_______________承担。  

宾语是动作的对象或承受者,常位于及物动词或介词后面。宾语由____________________________________________________来担任。   

主语和谓语是英语句子的两大成分,除少数句子(如祈使句和感叹句等)外,一句话必须同时具有主语和谓语所表达的意思才能完整。在正常情况下,英语的主语和谓语的位置与汉语一致,也就是说____________________

1)主语

  定义:主语是句子陈述的对象,说明是谁或什么。表示句子说的是"什么人"什么事。主语是执行句子的行为或动作的主体。

The doctor looked over Mrs. Brown very carefully

To give is better than to receive

2)谓语

  谓语由动词构成,不论何种时态,语态,语气,在人称和数上必须与主语保持一致。I like walking.(一般现在时主动语态)  

 I made your birthday cake last night. (一般过去时主动语态)

3)宾语

  宾语是谓语动作所涉及的对象,它是动作的承受者,宾语可以由名词或起名词作用的成分担任,宾语一般放在谓语动词后面。

I saw a cat in the tree

4)定语

  用于描述名词,代词,短语或从句的性质,特征范围等情况的词叫做定语,定语可以由名词,形容词和起名词和形容词作用的词,短语担任。如果定语是单个词,定语放在被修饰词的前面,如果是词组,定语放在被修饰词的后面。  

 That is a beautiful flower

5)状语

  1.说明事物发生的时间,地点,原因,目的,结果方式,条件或伴随情况,程度等情况的词叫状语。   

2.状语的功用:状语说明地点、时间、原因、目的、结果、条件、方向、程度、方式和伴随状况等。   

3、状语一般由副词、介词短语、分词和分词短语、不定式或相当于副词的词或短语来担当。其位置一般放在句末,但也可放在句首或句中,修饰动词、形容词、副词等

He speaks English very well

6)补语

  英语中补语的作用对象是主语和宾语,具有鲜明的定语性描写或限制性功能,在句法上是不可或缺的。补语是起补充说明作用的成份。最常见的是宾语补足语。名词、动名词、形容词、副词、不定式、现在分词、过去分词都可以在句子中作宾补。

I felt my hands tremble

7)表语

  表语是用来说明主语的性质,身份,特征和状态。表语须和连系动词一起构成句子的复合谓语。表语一般放在系动词之后。表语可以由名词,形容词或起名词和形容词作用的词和短语担任。

We are happy now.

8)同位语

  当两个指同一事物的句子成分放在同等位置时,一个句子成分可被用来说明或解释另一个句子成分,前者就叫做后者的同位语(appositive.这两个句子成分多由名词(代词)担任,同位语通常皆放在其说明的名词(代词)之后。

This is Miss Chen,our English teacher.

巩固练习

标出下列句子的成分

1. The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom.

2. The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year.

3. To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.

4. I don't like the picture on the wall.

5. The days get longer and longer when summer comes.

6. There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon.

7. Tom didn't do his homework yesterday.

8. We had better send for a doctor.

9. He is interested in music.

10. The man downstairs was trying to sleep.

11.By the time I got to the station,the train had left.

12.The children bought their parents a car for the 25th anniversary of their marriage.

第二节       简单句的五种基本句型

句子是写作的基本单位,只有写好句子才有可能写好文章。英语句子的构成有其特定的规律,掌握了句子的基本句型,就能写出完整、正确的句子。英语句子虽然千变万化,但就一个简单句来说,其基本结构不外乎以下五种:

1、主语 + 系动词 + 表语

    Our city   is   at the crossing of some important railways.

 主语  系动词   表语

The city    will become     rich.

主语       系动词       表语

   在这类结构中最常用的系动词是be, look(看起来),sound(听起来),smell(闻起来),taste(尝起来),feel(摸起来,感到),seem(似乎,好像),appear(显得,好像),remain(仍是),keep(保持),become(变得,成为),turn(变得,成为),get(变得),go(变得)等表示状态和变化的词,而充当表语的词语则有名词、形容词、副词、介词短语和非谓语动词等。

2、主语 + 谓语

Building   has started.

 主语     谓语

The train    leaves at 7:40.

主语       谓语

该句型中的谓语为不及物动词,其后不带宾语,但可以根据实际需要带上一个合适的状语,状语的位置可放在句首、句中或句尾,一般以句尾为多见。谓语动词的前面根据需要还可加上适当的情态动词或助动词。如果多个谓语动词并列,可用and, but等并列连词将它们连接起来。

3、主语 + 谓语 +  宾语

The boss    employed    five more workers.

主语     谓语        宾语

Few students    like     taking exams.

主语      谓语     宾语

动词后接宾语时应该用及物动词,若动词不及物则须_________________________,如What are you looking for?

在这类结构中,宾语是动作的承受者。常见的充当宾语的词语和结构有;名词、代词、非谓语动词和从句等。

4、主语 + 谓语 +  间接宾语 + 直接宾语/主语 + 谓语 + 直接宾语 + 间接宾语

He    has fetched    us         some new textbooks.

主语   谓语       间接宾语      直接宾语

A car factory  will bring   the province    more jobs.

主语      谓语       间接宾语     直接宾语

此句型中的及物动词须跟两个宾语,间接宾语一般指人,直接宾语一般指物。间接宾语可以放在直接宾语的前面,也可放在直接宾语的后面,但间接宾语放在后面时需在其前面加上适当的介词。例:A car factory will bring more jobs to the province.

可接双宾语的常见动词有:ask, answer, give, offer, send, bring, pass, tell, show, teach等。

5、主语 + 谓语 +  宾语 + 宾语补足语

The villagers  didn’t  allow   them    to do this.

主语          谓语       宾语   宾语补足语

  I    will keep  the box    in the shade.

主语   谓语     宾语       宾语补足语

该句型中的宾语 + 宾语补足语又叫做复合宾语,其特点是宾语与其补语之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,宾语相当于汉语里的兼语式,它既充当前面谓语的宾语,又兼作其后宾语补足语的逻辑主语。

充当宾语补足语的词语和结构有:名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、非谓语动词等。

当主语、宾语、宾语补足语是由名词充当时,根据需要还可在其前面加上名词、数词、形容词,或在其后面加上副词、介词短语、非谓语动词等定语成分来修饰相关名词。

可接复合宾语的常见动词有:ask, tell, find, help, like, allow, take, make, let, have(使得), force(强迫), call, advise, persuade(劝服), watch, see, hear, feel(认为,觉得), consider(认为), choose, elect(选)等。

巩固练习

 翻译下列句子并指出它们分别属于哪种简单句基本结构

1. He asked her to take the boy out of school.

2.She found it difficult to do the work.

3.He began to learn English when he was eleven

4. Please tell us a story.

5. My father bought a new bike for me last week.

6. Mr Li is going to teach us history next term.

7.We always work hard at English.

8.He said he didn't come.

9.They love each other.

10. Hurry up and you will finish your homwork on time.

11.She watched her daughter playing the piano.

12.Your job today is to help the old.

13.Speaking doesn't mean doing.

第四章  动词时态 语态

第一节时态

一、Find out the different tenses in the following texts

I've never been late for school, but yesterday I came very close. My alarm clock didn't go off,and by the time I woke up,my father had already gone into the bathroom and I had to wait for him to come out. I had to really rush. I took a quick shower,had some breakfast,and  then ran off to the bus stop. Unfortunately by the time I got there,the bus had already left. I started walking,but I knew I couldn't get to school on time. Luckily,my friend Tony and his dad came by in his dad's car and they gave me a ride. When I got to school, the final bell was ringing. I only just made it to my class     

二、Fill in the blanks with different tenses

In 1938,a radio program by actor Orson Welles _________(announce) that aliens from Mars__________(land) on the Earth. He _________(describe)d where they had landed and __________(tell) how they _________(move) across the United States,Welles was so convincing that hundreds ofpeople believed the story,and panic set off across the whole country. By the time the horities revealed that the story _________(be) a hoax, thousands of people ________( flee) from their homes.

 

.动词(主动语态)的时态变化一览表:

现在  时态

谓语动词构成

动词用原形(单三加s / es)

(问句和否定句借用助词do / does)

am

is   +动词-ing

are

will + 动词原形

am

is     +going to+动词原形

are

have

过去分词

has

过去时态

谓语动词构成

动词用过去式

(问句和否定句借用助词did)

was

      动词-ing

were

would + 动词原形

was

+going to+动词原形

were

had +过去分词

四、Underline the different tenses

1. One April Fool's Day, a reporter in England  announced that there would be no more   spaghetti because the spaghetti farmers jn Italy had stopped growing spaghetti. Many people ran to their local supermarket to buy as much spaghetti as they could. By the time people realized that the story was a hoax, all  of thes paghetti across the country had been sold out.

2. A famous TV star once invited his girlfriend onto his show on April Fool's Day. He asked her to marry him.She was thrilled,because she really wanted to get married. However,when she said "yes",he replied,! "April Fool!" That little joke didn't have a very happy ending. TheTV star lost both his 9irlfriend and his show.

3. Dr Naismith divided the men in his class into two teams and taught them how to play his new game. The aim of basketball is for players to get a ball into the "basket": a net hanging from 1 metal hoop. Players shoot from below the basket and may use the"backboard"for guiding the ball into the basket. Players move towards one end of the court while throwing the ball to each other.

It is believed that on December 21st, 1891,the first basketball game in history was played. Then in 1936 in Berlin,it became an Olympic event. A team from China took part,and although they didn't win they used the experience to help develop the game at home. Since then, the popularity of basketball has risen worldwide, and the number of foreign players in America's NBA(National BasketballAssociation) has increased. Basketball has also become a more popular sport for people to watch, and many young people dream of becoming famous basketball players.

九种时态的具体用法:

(1)        一般现在时 表示现阶段经常或习惯发生的动作或存在的状态,或说明主语的特征。

(2)     一般过去时 表示过去某时发生的动作或状态,这种动作或状态可能是一次性,也可能经常发生。

(3)        一般将来时 表示将来某一时刻或经常发生的动作或状态。

(4)        现在进行时 现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作或是现阶段正发生而此刻不一定在进行的动作。

(5)        过去进行时  过去进行时表示过去某一时刻或某阶段正在进行的动作。

(6)        现在完成时  现在完成时表示一个发生在过去的、对现在仍有影响的动作,或表示开始在过去,并且一直延续到现在,甚至还可能延续下去的动作。

瞬间性动词的完成时

延续性动词或状态动词的完成时

have

(already)

gone to…

have

been in / at …

for(twoyears)

has

 

come to…

has

been here

since (1990)

(had)

 

left…

(had)

been away from…

 

 

 

arrived…

 

been in…

 

 

 

died

 

been dead

 

 

 

begun

 

been on

 

 

 

ended

 

been over

 

 

 

bought...

 

had…

 

 

 

borrowed…

 

kept…

 

 

 

joined…

 

been in …

 

        或者使用下面这个句型:

It  is / has been  + (多久)+ since + 主语()+谓语(过去时)+……+过去时间状语

(7)        过去完成时  过去完成时表示过去某一时间或某一动作发生之前已经完成的动作。简言之, 过去完成时所表示的时间是过去的过去

(8)        过去将来时  过去将来时表示在过去预计将要发生的动作或存在的状态。

(9)        现在完成进行时:现在完成进行时指一个从过去就开始一直延续到现在并由可能继续下去的动作,它具有现在完成时和现在进行时双重特征,结构是:“have/has + been +动词的现在分词

Fill in the blanks with different tenses

Dear Laura,

Thanks for your message. Yes,I_______(have) a great time on my exchange program in France.It's even better than I thought it _______(be). I was a bit nervous before I _______(arrive) here,but there was no reason to be. My host family is really nice. They go out of their way to make me feel at home. And you wouldn't believe how quickly my French has improved! I'm very comfortable speaking French now. Although I still ________(make) lots of mistakesit _______(not bother) me like it used to . My biggest challenge________(learn) how to behave at the dinner table. As you can imagine,things are really different from the way they ______(be) at home. For example,you're not supposed to put your bread on your plate. You're supposed to put it I on the table! I thought that was pretty strange at first,but now I'm used to it. You're not supposed to eat anything with your hands except bread,not even fruit! (You have to cut it f up and eat it with a fork.) Another thing is that it is very rude to say you're full. If you ________(want) any more food,you should just say,"It was delicious." Also,it's rude to put your hands in your lap. You should always keep your hands,but not your elbows,on the table.I have to say,I find it difficult to remember everything,but I'm gradually getting used to things and _______(find) them so strange any more. I_______( write) soon and tell you more about life in France. Hope you're having a good school year.Wang Kun

时态转换练习

1 The girl will clean the library tomorrow.

一般现在时_______________________________________________everyday.

现在进行时_______________________________________________now.

2 I am going to study in the classroom next day.

一般现在时_______________________________________________everyday.

现在进行时_______________________________________________now.

3 Look, Nancy is washing clothes at home.

一般现在时_______________________________________________everyday.

一般将来时_______________________________________________tomorrow.

4 It’s one o’clock. They are sweeping the floor in the playground..

一般现在时_______________________________________________everyday.

一般将来时_______________________________________________tomorrow.

5 Helen often reads a magazine in the reading room .

现在进行时_______________________________________________now.

一般将来时_______________________________________________tomorrow.

6 Sometimes Su Hai and Su Yang play cards in the sitting-room.

现在进行时_______________________________________________now.

一般将来时_______________________________________________tomorrow.

练习:

1. —May I go to the cinema , Mum ?

   —Certainly . But you______be back by 11 o’clock .

A. can      B. may     C. must      D. need

2. —Must I finish the exercise this afternoon ?

   —Yes , you _____, but you _____ finish it now .

A. must , mustn’t           B. must , don’t have to

C. may , needn’t            D. may , mustn’t

3. After a long walk , the old man  _____ be tired now .

A. can      B. must      C. has to      D. need

4. It’s 26℃outside today . You _____ wear your sweater though it’s really “ cool ” on you .

A. can’t      B. mustn’t      C. needn’t      D. shouldn’t

5. Mr. Wang _____ be in Nanjing now , he went to Beijing only this morning .

A. mustn’t       B. may not      C. can’t      D. needn’t

6. The city cleaners _____ repeat their work many times a day during the dust-storm season .

A. may      B. can     C. might      D. have to

7. —Can you go swimming with us this afternoon ?

   —Sorry , I can’t . I ____ take care of my little sister at home because my mother is ill .

A. can      B. may      C. would      D. have to

8. —Must we finish the work before five ?

 —No , you _____. You can do it tomorrow .

A. mustn’t      B. may not      C. can’t     D. needn’t

9. — ____  I have your name , please ?

  —Yes , Michael . M-I-C-H-A-E-L.

A. Must       B. Will       C. May      D. Need

10. _____ you pass me a pen ? I’d like to write down the telephone number .

A. Need      B. Could      C. Must     D. Should

11. Cars , buses and bikes _____ stop when the traffic lights change to red .

A. can       B. may      C. must       D. need

12. Henry ____ be at home because he phoned me from the farm just now .

A. mustn’t       B. isn’t able to      C. may not      D. can’t

13. Even the top students in our class can’t work out this problem . So it _____ be very difficult .

A. may      B. must      C. can      D. need

14. You _____ go and ask Meimei . She____ know the answer .

A. must , can       B. must , may      C. need , can      D. can , may

15. —The room is so dirty . ____ we clean it ?

    —Of course .

A. Will      B. Would      C. Do      D. Shall

16. —Mr. Jackson , must I finish my homework in class now ?

    —No , you ____. You can do it at home and hand it in tomorrow .

A. mustn’t        B. may not      C. don’t have to       D. can

17. You ____ put the dish into the fridge or it will ____ bad .

A. must , seem       B. can , grow      C. need , get      D. must , go

18. —  _____ you speak Russian as well as your brother William ?

       —No , I can’t .

A. Must       B. Can       C. May      D. Need

19. —Must I return the book this morning ?

    —No , you ____. But you ______ to return it before next Monday .

A. needn’t , must      B. mustn’t , can     C. mustn’t , may     D. needn’t , need

20. Melinda , ______ you answer the phone , please ? I am having a shower .

A. must       B. shall      C. need      D. could

21. — ______ I have a look at your 21st Century ?

    —Certainly , here you are .

A. May      B. Must     C. Need     D. Should

22. —Can you sing the song “ Butterfly ” in English ?

    —No , I don’t think I       .

A. can’t       B. cannot      C. am able       D. can

23. —  _____ have dinner with my wife and me next week ?

     —Yes , I’d like to . Thank you .

A. Would you like         B. Would you      C. Do you like      D. Do you

24. —_______ I take the book out ?

    —Yes , but you ______ return it before next Thursday .

A. Can , may       B. May , must       C. May , need       D. Need , must

25. Jenny and her parents ____ going to visit the Palace Museum tomorrow .

A. is       B. am       C. are       D. be

26. The Internet ______ it easy to get much new information in a short time .

A. finds      B. makes     C. feels     D. takes

27. —  ____ you _____ to the radio?

—No , you can turn it off .

A. Did , listen      B. Have , listened      C. Do , listen      D. Are , listening

28. Mother______ when I saw her in the kitchen .

A. cook       B. cooks      C. was cooking      D. is cooking

29. Alice_____ the History Museum with her classmates next week .

A. visited        B. visits        C. will visit      D. has visited

30. If it _____ tomorrow , we’ll go out to make some snowman .

A. snow       B. snows      C. is snowing       D. will snow

31. —Nice to see you . I _____ you for a long time .

   —I _____ in Beijing . I’ve just come back .

A. hadn’t seen , am               B. haven’t seen , was      

C. didn’t see , will be            D. haven’t seen , shall be

32. —Your sweater looks nice , is it  _____ wool ?

    —Yes , and it’s ______ Inner Mongolia .

A. made of , made by        B. made of , made in

C. made by , made for        D. made by , made from

33. Everyone except Tom and John______there when the meeting began .

A. is       B. was       C. are        D. were

34. It seems to me that Lucy and Lily       your classmates .

A. is        B. are      C. has      D. have

35. By the end of last term , we ______ three English films .

A. will see        B. saw      C. have seen       D. had seen

36. China______ the WTO and became a new member of it last year .

A. joined        B. join      C. will join     D. has joined

37. I often ______ my homework after supper . But yesterday evening I ______ a newspaper .

A. do , readed       B. do , read      C. did , read      D. did , readed

38. He told the policeman that Kate _____ near the lake at this time yesterday evening .

A. was playing       B. is playing       C. has played       D. plays

39. Mrs. Black _____ with my mother when I saw her an hour ago .

A. talks       B. was talking      C. has talked      D. is talking

40. —Do you know why she _____ Mr. Jordan tomorrow ?

    —She has changed her mind .

A. won’t visit       B. didn’t visit       C. doesn’t visit        D. hasn’t visited

41. I’m really getting too fat . From now on , I _____ more exercise and eat less food .

A. do      B. am doing      C. have done      D. will do

42. —Excuse me . What did you say you would like to do , Miss White ?

    —I said I’d better go back to the office . I ______ someone this afternoon .

A. would meet        B. met       C. am going to       D. was meeting

43. —  _____ to the Untied States ?

   —No , never , but I went to Canada a few years ago .

A. Have you been      B. Have you gone      C. Did you go      D. Will you go

44. His sister ______ her hometown for three years . She’ll return next year .

A. left      B. has left     C. has been away      D. has been away from

45. His grandfather_____for over two years .

A. has died       B. has been dead      C. has dead      D. died

46. When we got to the cinema , the film______for ten minutes .

A. had begun       B. has been on      C. has begun       D. had been on

47. Jack _____ to several places in North China since he came to Beijing with his parents .

A. was traveling      B. had traveled      C. is traveling      D. has traveled

48. —When _____ this kind of computer _____?

    —Last year .

A. did , use        B. was , used       C. is , used       D. are , used

49. —Don’t forget to post this letter for me , please .

—No , I ______.

A. don’t       B. won’t      C. mustn’t       D. can’t

50. Bill might phone while I’m out this evening . If he ______ , could you take a message ?

A. does        B. might      C. phoned       D. will

51. —Your E-mail address again ? I ______ quite catch it .

  —Fdd langhter@263.com .

A. don’t        B. can’t      C. won’t      D. didn’t

52. The world ______. Things never stay the same .

A. changes        B. is changing      C. was changing       D. will change

53. —John , you ______ the computer game for two hours . It’s bad for your eyes . Stop , please .

—OK . Mum .

A. played       B. have played      C. were playing      D. play

54. We will talk about the problem as soon as we ______ time .

A. had        B. have      C. had had        D. will have

55. Even hot sun cannot make the place dry because green plants ______ there .

A. are growing       B. will grow      C. grew      D. grows

56. —What  ______ when I phoned you last night ?

    —I ______ my homework and was starting to take a bath .

A. were you doing , had just finished         B. would you do , have just finished

C. are you doing , just finished              D. did you do , just finished

57. I really don’t know if these machines_______ Japan .

A. are made of       B. make in      C. were made      D. are made in

58. —Where is Mr. Green now ? I haven’t seen him for a few days .

    —He______ to Hong Kong .

A. goes      B. will go    C. is going     D. has gone

59. —What are Mr. and Mrs. Black doing ?

    —They  ______ tea in the garden .

A. are drinking      B. drank       C. have drunk      D. drink

60. Our teacher , Miss Chen , _______ English on the radio the day before yesterday .

A. teaches       B. taught       C. will teach       D. had taught

61. You ______ to the meeting , why didn’t you go ?

A. be invited       B. will be invited      C. were invited       D. are invited

62. —What do you think of the football match yesterday ?

    —Well . It’s surprising . The strongest team of our school  ______ .

A. was beaten     B. won     C. scored     D. was failed

63. —What are you going to do this Saturday ?

    —I ____ yet .

A. haven’t decided      B. won’t decide     C. am not decided     D. didn’t decide

64. —Who cleaned the blackboard yesterday , Dick ?

    —John_____.

A. cleaned       B. does      C. did       D. is

65. A new wood bridge _____ in the village last month .

A. is built        B. can be built        C. will be built       D. was built

66. Mike , go and see who _____ football on the playground .

A. is playing        B. plays      C. played      D. were playing

67. —Please say “ I’m here ” when your name_____, will you ?

  —Yes , Mr. Hu .

A. will be called       B. calls       C. is called       D. is calling

68. I _____ read a lot of novels when I was a little boy .

A. was using         B. use to        C. used to        D. was used to

69. He came late to school again . I didn’t know what  _____ to him .

A. happens       B. had happened      C. was happened       D. has happened

70. —Why didn’t you go to see the film last Sunday ?

    —Because I _____ it before .

A. would see       B. saw       C. have seen      D. had seen

71. I want to know if it _____ tomorrow . If it  _____ , I’ll go for a picnic .

A. rains , won’t rain              B. rains , doesn’t rain     

C. will rain , won’t rain           D. will rain , doesn’t rain

72. — _____ you _____ your ruler yet ?

    —Yes , I ______ it a moment ago .

A. Did , find , found                     B. Have , found , found

C. Have , found , have found              D. Did , find , have found

第二节语态

一、被动语态:

(1)被动语态定义:被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,用来说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。如果主语是   动作的执行者(即某人做某事),便叫主动语态;如果主语是动作的承受者(即某事被做),便叫被动语态。主动与被动的区别不是词序的区别,而是主语与谓语意义上的区别。在英语中只有及物动词和一些相当于及物动词的词组才有被动语态的形式。

(2)英语中被动语态由助动词be +动词的过去分词构成。助动词be有时态、人称和数的变化。被动语态后的by短语有时可省去。

Please write out the different passive voices

___________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(1) 被动语态的用法:

不知道谁是动作的执行者(即不知道谁做)时用被动语态,省略by短语。如:A man was killed in the accident.(一个人死于事故)/ This window was broken yesterday.(这扇窗子是昨天被打破的)

不说或者众所周知是谁做时,用被动语态,省略by短语。如:Rice is also grown in this place.(这个地方也种水稻)/ A railroad will be built here in three years.(三年之后这里将要修建一条铁路)

强调动作的承受者,句尾加by短语。如:It was written by Lu Xun.(()是鲁迅写的)/ A pet dog is never killed by its owner.(宠物狗是不会被主人宰杀的)

(2) 主动语态如何改写为被动语态:

    主动句:   主语(/)  +  谓语(及物动词) +  宾语(/)  +  其他  + 状语

             (动作的执行者) (各种时态形式)    (动作的承受者)     

    被动句: 主语(/)  +  谓语(及物动词) +  by   + /     + 其他  + 状语

             (动作的承受者)  (be +过去分词)       (动作的执行者)               

(3) 注意点:

①“动词+间接宾语+直接宾语改为被动时,可以用间接宾语做被动句的主语。如:

        His teacher gave him a dictionary.→He was given a dictionary by his teacher.(老师给他一本字典他得到老师一本字典)

也可以用直接宾语做被动句的主语,但是需用to或者for引出原句的间接宾语。如:His teacher gave him a dictionary.→A dictionary was given to him by his teacher.(老师给他一本字典一本字典由老师送给了他)/His father made him a kite.→A kite was made for him by his father.(他的父亲给他做了一个风筝一个风筝由他的父亲做给了他)

②“动词+宾语+动词原形改为被动时,动词原形前要加to.如:The boss made the poor man work 12 hours a day.→The poor man was made to work 12 hours a day.(老板让这个可怜的人一天工作12小时这个可怜人被迫一天工作12小时)

③“动词+…+介词改为被动时,介词一般在原位不动。如:The girl takes good care of her little brother.→The girl’s little brother is taken good care of by her.(女孩照顾小弟弟女孩的小弟弟由她照顾着)

④“be+过去分词未必表示被动语态,而可能是系表结构。如:

He is pleased / worried / tired /…….(系表)(他高兴/焦虑/疲劳……)

 He was hit / knocked down / told / shot / …….(被动)(他被击中/撞倒/关照/射中……)

Complete the following blanks with passive voice

Do you know when basketball __________(invent)? If you travel around China you will notice a very popular activity everywhere you go-basketball. This much-loved and active sport __________(enjoy) by many, for fun and exercise. The sport of basketball is a little over a hundred years old. It _______(play) by more than 100 million people in over 200 countries in cluding China, where basketball _______(play) in parks,schools,and even in factories.Basketball ________(invent) by a Canadian doctor_______( name) James Naismith,who _______(bear) in 1861. When he was at college,his class _______(once ask) to invent a new game that could be played indoors during the long winters. Dr Naismith created a game to ______(play)on a hard wooden floor, so the safety of the players was important.Knocking into players and falling down would be dangerous.

练习题

1.It is said that a new robot ____by him in a few days.

  A designed        B has been designed  

 C will be designed  D will have been designed

2.We are late. I expect the film ____by the time we get to the cinema.

  A will already have started   B would already have started

  C shall have already started   D has already been started

3. She will stop showing off if no notice____ of her.

A is taken   B takes  C will be taken D has taken

4. Diamond ____in Brazil in 1971.

  A is found    B has been found  

 C was found   D had been found

5.“Have you movedsintosthe new flat?”“Not yet. The room____.”

  A has been painted   B is painted  

 C paints            D is being painted

6. My pictures ____until next Friday.

  A won't develop   B aren't developed

  C don't develop   D won' t be developed

7. Tim ____since he lost his job three weeks ago.

  A had been unemployed  B was unemployed 

C has been unemployed    D has unemployed

8. A great number of colleges and universities ____since 1949.

 A has been establish B have been established

 C have established   D had been established

9. I'll have to push the car to the side of the road because we ____if we leave it here.

  A would be fined   B will be fined   

C will being fined   D will have been fined

10. “____two tickets for the new play at the Grand Theatre on Saturday. Shall we go and see it together?”

  A They have been given  B I have been given 

C I am given          D They have given to me

11. The subject of these lectures ____by the lecture committee.

  A is announced    B have been announced   

C are announced   D has been announced

12. I found an aspirin bottle ____dropped on the floor of David's room.

  A was  B had  C had been   D is

13.The goods ____when we arrived at the airport.

A were just unloading   B were just been unloading

   C had just unloaded     D were just being unloaded

14. If one ____by pride, he will reject useful advice and friendly assistance.

  A overcomes          B is overcome  

 C has been overcome    D overcome

15. Most environment problems exist because adequate measures for preventing them ____taken in the past.

  A was not   B were not  C were not being   D had not been

16 .You ought to have put the milk in the refrigerator, now ____sour.

  A I smell   B it is smelt   C it smells   D it is smelling

17. After the race____, the celebration began.

  A had been won   B is won   C will be won   Dhas been won

18 .He was here for a little while, but I don't knowswhereshe ____now.

  A is   B was   C had been   D has been

19. The young teacher has ____ competent.

  A been proved to be   B proved to be  C been proved      D proved being

20. Pluto, the outermost planet of the solar system, ____photographically in March 1930.

  A discovered    B was discovered   C by discovery   D when discovered

21. To get a better view of the stage, ____.

  Aour seats had to be changed   B our seats were changed

  C we had to change our seats   D our seats were changed by us

22. After synthetic____, engineers had a better choice of material.

  A created          B has created  

 C has been created   D had been created

23 .I think much attention ____your pronunciation.

  A must be paid to   B ought to be paid to  

 C must pay to      D should be paid to

24. Since 1970, millions of enthusiasts ____Vitamin C, which they believe can remedy the common cold.

  A have taken        B have been taken  

 C have been taking   D have been taking

25. I don't remember ____the chance to try this method.

  Ashavingsbeen given   B to have been given  

 Cshavingsgiven       D to have given

26 .We could ask someone to do the work privately without it____.

  A know   B be known   C being known   D to be known

27. The construction of the laboratory ____by the end of next month.

A must be completed   B must have been completed

C will be completing   D will have been completing

28. They would tell how the African ____on a ship to an American port.

A was brought   B could have been brought   

C had been brought   D was to be brought

29. He does not possess a bicycle, this one he uses ____to Peter.

  A is belonged to   B belonged   C belongs   D is belonging

30. Negotiation ____again with Moscow tomorrow, a great event will be discussed then.

  A is to be opened   B is on the point of opening  

 C is going to open   D opens

31. The reason for all the changes being made ____to us yet.

  A has not explained   B has not been explained  

 C did not explained   D were not explained

32. Experiments in the photography of moving objects ____in both the United States and Europe well before 1900.

  A were conducting     Bwere conducted   

C had been conducted   D had conducted

33 .When he turned the corner, he found himself ____by a man in black.

  A tailed   B been tailed   C was tailed   D had been tailed

34. A candidate for the democratic presidential nomination ____at this moment.

A is interviewing         B being interviewed  

   C is being interviewed     D interviewing

35. As we approached the work site, the workers were seen ____the new house.

  A building   B build   C built   D to build

36. As we know, all the regulations in school ____.

  A must keep to   B must be kept  

 C must keep   D must be kept up

37. The composition ____any more.

  A need not to be corrected   B doesn't need to be corrected

  C doesn't need be corrected  D need not correct

38. The bank is reported in the local newspaper ____in broad daylight yesterday

  A to be robbed   B to have keen robbed   

C robbed        Dshavings been robbed

39. Hurry up, or the tickets ___out by the time we get there.

  A will have sold   B will sell   

C have sold       D will have been sold

40. He cleaned the glasses carefully for fear that it ____.

  A was damaged   B should be damaged  C damaged     D would be damaged

第五章  从句

初中阶段我们所学的从句主要有宾语从句、定语从句、状语从句等,你还知道有哪些从句?

  

 

1. Read the following passages and find out all the clauses and tell the function of each.

I had a very unusual experience on Sunday. At around ten o’clock in the morning, I was walking down the street when a UFO landed right in front of me. You can imagine how strange it wasAn alien got out and walk down the Center Street.

I followed it to see where it was going, and I was very surprised when it went into a souvenir shop. While it was looking at the souvenirs, the shop assistant called the police. Before the police arrived, the alien left the shop and then visited the Museum of Flight. While the alien was in the museum, I called the TV station.Isn't that amazing

The clauses in the passage are:

___________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. practice-complete the following sentences.

1). ----Do you know _____________________?work

   ----In the People's Hotel.

你知道Tom在哪里干活吗?--在人民宾馆。

2).I didn't understand __________________, so I raised my hand to ask.(say)

  我不理解老师说的,于是我举手提问。

3). She told me ______________________ my offer.(accept)

她告诉我她会接受我的出价。

4). The question is ____________________ in such a short time. (finish)

问题是我们是否能在那么短的时间内完成我们的工作。

5). When we returned from our vacation in Hainan, we were shocked to find ____________________________. (break)

当我们从海南度假返回后,我们惊讶地发现有人闯入我们的房子。

6). It's a pity ____________________ the movie last night.( go)

很遗憾他们昨晚没去看这部电影。

7)._________________________, his wife was cooking .(watch)

John 在看电视时,她妻子在做饭。

8). _____________________ until I finished my work. (go)

我直到完成了我的工作我才去了那儿。

9). ___________________, she knew more about her classmates. (as)

随着时间的推移,她更了解她的同学了。

10). She was about to go out ________________________. (come)

 她正准备出去,一个邻居来了。

11). __________________________, a bird flew in. (moment)

他一打开窗户,一只鸟飞了进来。

12). _______________________________, I agree that it can make our life better and happier.( come)

当说到友谊的时候,我同意它会使我们的生活更好更幸福。

3. Summary

___________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1.Read the following passages and find out all the clauses and tell the function of each.

Dear Miss Li,

   I’d like to thank you for sending money to Animal Helpers , an organization set up to help disabled people. You see, you have helped make it possible for me to have Lucky, who has filled my life with pleasure. Let me tell you my story.

   Being blind, unable to walk or use your hands easily is something that most people cannot imagine. But there many people who face these challenges, and I am one of them. Because I can’t use my arms or legs well, normal things like answering the telephone, opening and closing doors or carrying things have always been difficult for me. Then one day last year, a friend of mine said that she would like to help me out. She said she would talk to Animal Helpers to see if it would possible for me to get a specially trained dog. She also thought a dog might cheer me up. I told her that I love animals and that I’d love to have a dog.

  After six months of training with a dog at Animal Helpers, I was able to bring him home. My dog’s name is Lucky-a good name for him because I feel very lucky to have him. You see, I am only able to have a dog-helper because of your kind donation

  How does Lucky help me, you might ask? Well, he has been trained to understand different instructions. For example, I say “LuckyFetch my book,” and he does it at once. He is very clever and understands many English words. Even some difficult ones like “upstairs”.

  Lucky is an amazing dog. I’ll send you a photo of him if you like, and I could show you how he helps me too one day. And so I thank you again for supporting “Animal Helpers”. It is very important that organization does not run out of money. Your donation is greatly appreciated and the money is well used to help disabled people like me.          

                                                   Best wishes,

                                                                Liz Smith

2. ask the students more about the clauses above.

3. practice-complete the following sentences.

1). My friends dislikes me ____________________. (handsome)

朋友们不喜欢我,因为我既帅气又成功。

2). Generally, air will be heavily polluted __________________________(be).

一般说来,有工厂的地方空气将受到严重污染。

3). I'm waiting for my friend. _____________________, I'll go shopping alone.(come)

我在等我朋友。如果他不来,我将一个人去购物。

4). _______________, and you will find a way. (use)

动动脑筋,你会找到办法。

5). So early _________________that he caught the first bus. (get)

他起得很早,赶上了第一班车。

6). Confucius was a great thinker _______________________ on millions of people around the world today. (effect)

孔子是一个伟大的思想家,他的话今天仍然对世界各地亿万人有着极大的影响。

7). Basketball is a game _________________________.  ( like)

篮球是受大部分男孩喜欢的一种远动。

8).The farmers _________________are all here. (come)

那些来参观这个城市的农民都在这儿。

9). He did very well in the competition ,__________________. (make)

他在比赛中表现不错,这使他父母非常开心。

10). Can you think out a situation ___________________________(use)

你能想出一个这个词可以用的语境吗?

11). I'll never forget the days _________________________ in the factory.work

我永远不会忘记我们一起在工厂工作的时光。

12).Could you tell me ____________________?(hold

你能告诉我下一次会议什么时候开吗?

13).It's suggested that ______________________ the new machines to increase our products. (use)有人建议我们充分利用这些新机器以提高我们的产量。

4. Summary

___________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    

1.Read the following passages and find out all the clauses and tell the function of each.

  When a plane from London arrived at Sydney airport, workers began to unload a number of wooden boxes which contain clothing. No one could account for the fact that one of the boxes was extremely heavy. It suddenly occurred to one of the workers to open up the box. He was astonished at what he found. A man was lying in the box on top of a pile of woolen goods. He was so surprised at being discovered that he didn't even try to run away. After he was arrested, the man admitted hiding in the box before the plane left London. He had had a long and uncomfortable trip, for he had been confined to the wooden box for over eighteen hours. The man was ordered to pay £3,500 for the cost of the trip. The normal price of a ticket is £2,000

Step two, ask the students more about the clauses above.

Step three, practice-complete the following sentences.

1). The fact __________________ is wellknown to all. (work)

她工作努力的事实众所周知。

2). The day is breaking, ____________________. (for)

天正在变亮,因鸟儿在唱歌。

3). It will not be long __________________________. (come)

要不了多久他就会回来的。

4). Parents are taught to understand __________________to their children' s future.(important)

家长学会了理解教育对孩子的未来多吗重要。

5). Yesterday my brother drove his car down the street at ______________________ a dangerous speed. (think)

昨天我兄弟以我认为是一个危险的速度沿街驾车。

6).This is the first time __________________, so I don't know this town well. (well)

这是我第一次来这儿,所以我对这座小镇不很了解。

7).The man _________________ will be sentenced to death. (kill)

这个杀了俩个警察的男人将被判处死刑。

8).There _____________________ he will attend this evening's dancing party. (doubt)

毫无疑问,他将会参加今晚的舞会。

9). Jack is the only one of the students in our school who _________________ last Sunday. (give) 杰克是我们学校的学生中唯一得一等奖的。

10). He soon got interested in ____________________. (explain)

他很快就对老师正在尽力解释的东西感兴趣了。

11). It's agreed that only those ___________________ the agreed standard for the event can be given the chance to enter the next round. (reach)

大家都认为只有达到了赛事规定标准的人才可以获得进入下一轮的机会。

12).The TV that he ________________________ broke down again.(repair)

他找人修了的电脑又坏了。

4.Summary

___________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

   

1. Read the following passages and find out all the clauses and tell the function of each.

  When you visit London, one of the first things you will see is Big Ben, the famous clock which can be heard all over the world on the B.B.C. If the Houses of Parliament had not been burned down in 1834, the great clock would never have been erected(建立). Big Ben takes its name from Sir Benjamin Hall who was responsible for the making of the clock when the new Houses of Parliament were being built. It is only of immense(极大的) size, but is extremely accurate as well. Officials from Greenwich Observatory have the clock checked twice a day. On the B.B.C you can hear the clock when it is actually striking because microphones are connected to the clock tower. Big Ben has rarely gone wrong. Once, however, it failed to give the correct time. A painter who had been working on the tower hung a pot of paint on one of the hands and slowed it down

Step two, ask the students more about the clauses above.

Step three, practice-complete the following sentences.

1).If it had not been for the fact ______, I wouldn't have won the first prize in the English Writing Competition, help

要不是我的老师帮我,我就不会再在英语作文竞赛中获一等奖。

2). Frank insisted that ______ although I had great difficulty in waking him up.(fall

尽管我很费力才把他弄醒,弗兰克坚持说没睡着

3).           , what would you do?(position)

假如你是我,你会怎么做。

4). Tom doesn't know how long it will be before he__________carry on with the research. (allow)

汤姆不知道要过多久他才会被允许继续他的研究。

5). Some people think that museums use up the money ___________________ other things. (spend) 有人认为博物馆用了可以花在别的项目上的钱。

6).Can you think of any problems ___________________________ come

你能想出任何你最近遇到的问题吗?

7). If you know anyone else _________________, please tell me. (collect)

如果你认识任何别的集邮的人,请告诉我。

8). Bruce went towards the fire, __________________________. (smoke)

Bruce走向火场,那还在冒烟。

9). He spoke of the men and the thing ______________________ abroad. (see)

他说起他在国外所看见的人和事。

10).This is the hospital ________________________ the day before yesterday.(visit)

这是我们前天参观过的那家医院。

11). I have been dreaming of climbing that mountain, __________________  an old temple. (stand)我梦想爬上那座山,山顶上耸立着一座古庙。

12). We wrote a letter of thanks to               .(whoever)

我了一封信感谢凡是帮助过我们的人。

4.Summary

___________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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